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The Creation Of Enemies

(Go to Part I of the essay)


1 E.K. Hunt and Howard J. Sherman, Economics (New York: Harper and Row, 1990), p. 15; Jacques Benoist-Mechin, The End of the Ottoman Empire (ISBN 3-89434-008-8, no publisher or date noted); David Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace (New York: Avon Books, 1989); George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1969); Roger Whiting, The Enterprise of England (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988).

2 Thomas Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem (New York: Anchor Books, 1990), pp. 130, 138-139.

3 James Burnes, The Knights Templar, 2nd ed. (London: Paybe and Foss, 1840), pp. 12-14. See also Stephen Howarth's Knights Templar (New York: Dorset Press, 1982).

4 David Caute, The Great Fear (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978), pp. 18-9; Rich- ard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), pp. 10-11; Arkon Daraul, A History of Secret Societies (Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1961); James and Suzanne Pool, Who Financed Hitler? (NewYork: Dial Press, 1978); Barnet Litvinoff, The Burning Bush (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1988); Heiko Oberman, The Roots of Anti-Semitism (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984); and David H. Bennet, The Party of Fear (London: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), pp. 23-26, 205-06.

5 Daniel J. Boorstin, "History's Hidden Turning Points," U.S. News & World Report (Apr. 22, 1991): cover story.

6 Boorstin, Op. cit., p. 61.

7 Caute, The Great Fear, pp. 18-19.

8 Bennet, The Party of Fear, pp. 191-98, 205-06.

9 Eric Wolf, Europe and the People Without History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 99-100.

10 Wolf, Op. cit., ch. 3, pp. 43, 61, 97, 108, 110, 119; Gabriel Kolko, The Politics of War (New York: Pantheon, 1990), chs. 3 & 4.

11 Wolf, Op. cit., p. 9.

12 Burman, The Inquisition; Henry Charles Lea, The Inquisition of the Middle Ages (New York: Citadel Press, 1954), a condensation of his 1887 three volume monumental work, A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages.

13 G.J.A. O'Toole, Honorable Treachery (NewYork: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991), pp. 402-71.

14 Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation (Boston: Beacon Press, 1944), pp. 237-241; see also F. L. Carsten, Britain and the Weimar Republic (New York: Schocken Books, 1984), esp. ch. 8, and Carsten's The Rise of Fascism.

15 Carsten, The Rise of Fascism, pp. 150-55.

16 Carsten, Weimar Republic, esp. ch. 8; also Michael N. Dobbowski and Isodor Wallimann, Radical Perspectives on the Rise of Fascism in Germany (New York: Monthly Review Press 1989), esp. pp. 194-209.

17 J. Noakes and G. Pridham, Editors, Nazism 1919 - 1945, vol. 2 (New York: Schocken Books, 1988), p. 626.

18 J. Noakes and G. Pridham, Editors, Op. cit., p. 626.

19 Carl Bernstein, "The Holy Alliance," Time Magazine (Feb. 24, 1992).

20 20 J.M. Roberts, The Triumph of the West (London: British Broadcasting Company, 1985)

21 John Prados, The Presidents' Secret Wars (NewYork: William Morrow, 1986), chs. 2 and 3; Loftus, Belarus Secret, chs. I through 3, pp. 43, 49, 51-53, 102-03; John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), p. 156.

22 Claude Halstead Van Type, The Loyalists and the American Revolution (New York: Burt Franklin, 1929), p. vii.

23 Richard Barnet, The Rockets' Red Glare: War, Politics and the American Presidency (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990), p. 25, 59.

24 Alexander Cockburn, "Beat the Devil," The Nation (Mar. 6. 1989): p. 294; David Corn and Jeffersorn Morley, "Beltway Bandits," The Nation (Apr. 9, 1988): p. 488. An interesting appraisal of Stalinist terror is made by Soviet dissident Roy Medvedev, "Parallels Inappropriate," New Times (July 1989): pp. 46-47. See also Volkman and Baggett, Secret lntelligence, p. 187; Loftus, Belarus Secret, esp. chs. 5-8 and pp. 109-10; and Blum, CIA, chs. 6, 7, 8, 15, and 17.

25 Blum, CIA: A Forgotten History, ch. 7.

26 Volkrnan and Baggett, Secret Intelligence, p. 9.

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