CREATING ENEMIES continued (Go to Part I)
In 1776, the American Revolution reclaimed many of those suppressed rights. In the same year, Professor Adam Weishaupt of the University of Ingolstadt in Bavaria : (Germany) established the Bavarian Illuminati ("enlightened ones"), a secret group to expand the rights of the people. Thirteen years later, the French Revolution's promise of more extensive rights created even greater fear in the First and Second Estates. The Third Estate (the common people) now ruled France and full rights for everybody could have become contagious. The old power brokers immediately asserted their control by frightening the population into a witch hunt. The war cry went out, "Look out for the Illuminati! Look out for the Illuminati! They want to take over your country! Your church! The world!"4 Note that no one today will dispute that it was the king, aristocracy, and church (those sounding the warning) who then controlled the so-called civilized world. Today's defense of the powerful through the creation of enemies is also specifically designed to prevent the further expansion of common people's rights gained in the American and French Revolutions.
The Illuminati were not an enemy of the common people. They were trying to defend them from abuses of power (such as the Inquisitions) by society's leaders. Although they gained a following among progressive aristocrats, they, like the Templars, were a threat to the powerful right wing of the church and aristocray. They too, were vilified as the enemy and quickly eliminated. The people, trusting their leaders and not having any other information, believed the propaganda and supported the destruction of those who should have been considered their friends and protectors.
That the Illuminati are active today and a threat to freedom is a fiction kept alive by the far-right wing, whose politics are too extreme even for most of those who do hold the reins of power. It is ironic to note that it was the ruling powers who created these fictions to control the masses. Now when people without sufficient education---or of radical bent---dig up those old writings about the Illuminati, they point to the current organizations of the powerful (such as the Trilateralists) as being the Illuminati attempting to rule the world. Poetic justice!
But the forward march of history could not be stopped. Napoleon Bonaparte, through conquest of many of the nations conspiring to overthrow the French Revolution, spread throughout Europe the rights declared for all men by that revolution. Known as the Napoleonic Codes, "they are the basis for the law of thirty nations today"5 The twin threats of loss of trading rights in Europe (Napoleon's Continental System) and the threat of replacing aristocratic privilege with rights for all people led to a "Holy Alliance" (more often called a "Monarchical Alliance") between European monarchies and the church to reclaim their aristocratic rights. Though Napoleon freed most of Europe, he was ultimately defeated. The aristocracy and European monarchies immediately convened the Congress of Vienna to abrogate the newly gained rights of the masses. However, "Napoleon's omelette couldn't be unscrambled....It was a force destined to destroy the dynastic system."6
History teaches of Napoleon's desire to be a world dictator when he was really destroying the power of the First and Second Estates who did control (but not rule) the world. Because Napoleon was such a threat to the powerful, the secret services of the European monarchies guided the writing and publication of books depicting Napoleon as a megalomaniac and tyrannical dictator, and these are the definitive books on Napoleon today. In a replay of the Illuminati nonsense, once he was demonized as an enemy of the people, and quite simply because they did not know any better, the masses paid no attention to the fact that Napoleon really stood for reclaiming their rights.* Because of his defeat at Waterloo by reactionary aristocratic powers, the world will never know if he would have eventually established democratic governments and given more rights (such as equality for women and minorities) to the people.
Fear gripped the powerful once more after the Russian Revolution. The Third Estate, the common people, had again revoked and taken the reins of power from the First and Second Estates. The scourge of Bolshevism was substituted for the old Illuminati scare, but the basic message was the same, "Communism! Communism! They want to take over your country! Your church! The world!"7 In the United States in 1920 this took the form of the Palmer Raids in which, just as in the attacks on the Templars in the Middle Ages, thousands were arrested in the middle of the night. Hundreds were deported, and hundreds more were sent to prison.8 Again take note that most of the world was still under the control of the power brokers of those countries sounding the warning. The country that had broken away from capitalism's control was, by comparison, extremely weak. The real fear was the failure of the fourteen-nation attempt to overthrow the Bolshevik Revolution (see below) and the governing of a country by the common people (the Third Estate). Lest it spread and destroy the current power structure, the masses of the "free" countries had to be inoculated against the ideology of that revolution through creation of the Bolshevik "enemy".
During the crisis of the Great Depression, the power brokers of many European countries knew that the leaders of labor would win in any election, so they turned the governments over to fascists. It was democracy that was feared. Only in Spain was a free election permitted and there the Third Estate won. The connection between the power brokers and fascism again became evident when troops from Germany and Italy supported Franco, and in a bloody foreshadow of World War II, overthrew that election.†
The powerful became frightened again after World War II when:
1) nominally independent Hungary and Czechoslovakia slipped into the orbit of the Soviet Union, and the Third Estate (the common people) now governed half of Europe;
2) Greek partisans who had fought fascism throughout World War II were prevented from governing Greece and slipping into the orbit of the opposing center of capital only by massive repression and massacres in alliance with those who had governed Greece under Hitler;
3) the world's most populous nation, China, was suddenly free and was now also governed by labor;
4) a "white Paper" had already been dictated that would recognize world opinion and return Taiwan (Formosa) to China;
5) South Korea was having massive riots (100,000 killed), the followers of dictator Syngman Rhee had just been overwhelmingly voted out of parliament, several crack South Korean military units [had] defected to leftist forces, and it appeared South and North Korea were going to rejoin as one nation with the Third Estate in power;9
6) virtually the entire colonial world was breaking free and, as it was the dominant centers of capital in alliance with local elite (the First and Second Estates within defeated countries) that had kept them in bondage for generations, these emerging nations, with their governments composed largely of common people, were vulnerable to a socialist ideology;
7) there was no assurance that Germany, Italy and Japan who were still far from friendly with those who had just defeated them--could be held under control by the major centers of capital and France was even more vulnerable;10
8) the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe and retain its loyalty went forward at full speed, but Western economies were not picking up as planned; the beacon of capitalism, the receptacle of power for the descendants of the old First and Second Estates, was not shining brightly enough to claim the loyalties of the world's intellectuals or that of the stirring masses;
9) the dreaded socialist experiment with governments controlled by the common people was spreading rapidly; the second "Great Red Scare" went out, and the United States witnessed the House Un-American Activities Committee and Senator Joseph McCarthy taking the lead in creating a national fever that destroyed the lives of tens of thousands of loyal Citizens.‡
The identical procedure for silencing any intellectual or anyone of influence within the country who might have allied with the world movement for freedom was taking place in Japan and Europe. We know this as the Cold War.
With China and Eastern Europe lost and allied with the Soviet Union, if India and the rest of the world's former colonies formed a non-aligned bloc, over 80 percent of the world's population could be on the other side of the ideological battle. Furthermore, if Japan, Germany, Italy and France could not be held (it was far from sure they could be), that would leave only the United States, Britain, Canada, and Australia (about 10 percent of the world's population) ideologically allied against the entire rest of the world. As the world started breaking free from the chains of mercantilist colonialism, U.S. State De- partment officials clearly realized their dilemma.
We cannot expect domestic prosperity under our system without a constantly expanding trade with other nations. The capitalist system is essentially an international system, if it cannot function internationally, it will break down completely.11
For a thousand years power brokers had been accustomed to monopolizing the tools of production, naming the terms of world commerce, and siphoning the world's wealth to their centers of capital. Knowing the dispossessed and intellectuals within the remaining four countries (the United States, Britain, Canada, and Australia)§ could quickly become ideologically attached to societies govemed by their peers, the power brokers faced a threat of the first order.
The Creation of Enemies back (Part I)
The Creation of Enemies next
The Creation of Enemies next
* As they had never known democracy and freedom, Napoleon's placing of relatives and friends as kings of the countries defeated was very likely necessary; this was the only government these people understood and the First and Second Estates, both internally and externally, stood ready to spend any amount of blood and treasure to reclaim those territories. After all, they considered themselves the rightful owners and rulers of that land.
Although we are outlining in this treatise how control of trade was the cause of all wars, aristocracy's efforts to retain and reclaim their privileges were deeply involved. Those privileges were nothing more than a method of controlling people and intercepting the production of their labors. Thus their intrigues leading to war are still over society's trade. World Wars I and II were the results of the efforts of both aristocracy and the newly wealthy bourgeois to retain or reclaim their control over people and resources (trade).
The so-called Spanish Civil War was the taking back of Spain by the reactionary Second Estate after a successful revolution by the vote (Seldes, Gods Can't Change History, part 2, chapter 3). And these powers never ceased their efforts to regain power in the East after the Russian Revolution (Boorstin, "Holy Alliance", p. 28-35).
† The wrongly-titled Spanish Revolution is a textbook study on how the battle cry of communism has been used to motivate populations to support the overthrow of some of the world's most democratic elections. The competing parties in Spain's election "consisted of two Republican parties with 126 representatives in the Cortez, 99 socialists, 35 Catalan Separatists, and Just 17 Communists. (George Seldes, "The Roman Church and Franco", The Human Quest [March-April, 1994]: pp. 16-18. Also see Seldes, Gods Can't Change History, part 2, chapter 3.) Whenever loss of control was imminent, communism became the standard war cry. Due to that propaganda, very few Americans realized the successfully overturned 1984 Nicaraguan election that legitimized the Sandinista government was a replay of the overthrow of the Spanish election; there were fourteen political parties in the Nicaraguan election and the communist party was one of the smallest.
‡ Ellen W. Schrecker, in her masterly work No Ivory Tower (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), especially p. 341, explains how academics were fully aware that the Cold War was being engineered from this side and tried to warn the people, but were silenced. For a fuller description of how this has happened throughout history, read Caute, The Great Fear, especially pp. 18-19; John Stockwell, The Praetorian Guard (Boston: South End Press, 1991); Milton Mayer, They Thought They Were Free (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955); John Loftus, The Belarus Secret (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982); I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1952); William Blum's CIA: A Forgotten History (New Jersey: Zed Books, 1986); Edward and Regula Boorstein, Counter Revolution (New York: International Publishers, 1990); John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline oft he CIA (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986); Earnest Volkman and Blaine Baggett, Secret Intelligence (New York: Doubleday, 1989); David Leigh, The Wilson Plot (New York: Pantheon, 1988); Frank J. Donner, The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America's Political Intelligence System (New York: Random House, 1981); Jonathan Kwitny, Endless Enemies (New York: Penguin Books, 1986); Robert J. Groden and Harrison E. Livingston, High Treason (New York: Berkeley Books, 1990); Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1988); Jim Marrs, Crossfire (New York: Carroll and Graf, 1989); Anthony Summers, Conspiracy (New York: Paragon House, 1989); Mark Lane, Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK? (New York: Thunder Mountain Press, 1991); Lawrence Wittner, American Intervention in Greece (New Yorlc Columbia University Press, 1982), especially pp. 162, 165, 283; Kati Marton, The Polk Conspiracy: Murder and Cover-up in the Case of Correspondent George Polk (New York: Farrar, Staus & Giroux, 1990); Blum, CIA, pp. 31-36, 243-50; Manchester, Glory, pp. 433-43; Leigh, Wilson, pp. 17-18; C.M. Woodhouse, The Rise and Fall of the Greek Colonels (New York: Franklin Watts, 1985); Stephan Rosskamm Shalom, Imperial Alibis (Boston: South End Press, 1993), pp. 25-26; McClintock, Statecraft, pp. 11-17. The Chronicle of Higher Learning, The Journal of Diplomatic History, and The Economist featured a resurgence of academic thought on the origins of the Cold War (Karen J. Winkler, "Scholars Refight the Cold War", Chronicle of Higher Learning [March 2, 1994]: p. A8). The title alone of the memoirs of one of the prime architects of the Cold War, Present at the Creation (New York: W.W. Norton, 1987) by Dean Acheson, tells its own story. But, if one has any doubt, read page 377. Two months before the Korean War, National Security Council Directive 68 (NSC-68), the paper that officially launched --and was the master plan for--the Cold War, directed that the military be increased 350 percent, from $13.5 billion to $50 billion. With the eruption of the Korean War, the military budget tripled to $44 billion (Agee, "Tracking Covert Actions", p. 4.) and eventually reached that $50 billion in 1950 dollars ($300 billion in 1990 dollars), and the East did collapse. Acheson acknowledged that without a war there was no way the American people could be sold an increase in military spending. And he tells about conservative Senators Brien McMahon and Millard Tydings urging a $50 billion Marshall Plan for the world ($300 billion in 1990 dollars). As this book demonstrates, that Marshall Plan for the world could have eliminated world poverty. Instead, the decision was made to control the world by armed might. The militarists simply had their way and the chance for peace--by creating loyalty to free enterprise capital by developing the world--was lost.
§ Other than Canada, does this bloc look familiar? (NOTE: This footnote by owner of this website)